Kinship - Wikipedia
Related by blood or marriage is a crossword puzzle clue. Likely related crossword puzzle clues. Sort A-Z. Related · Like · Relatives · Related. Find clues for related-by-blood-or-marriage or most any crossword answer or clues for RELATIONS Joined as by treaty, agreement or marriage (6). ALLIED. lineage 08 kiniolks 09 relations, relatives 13 consanguinity, llesh and blood 09 connected, relations, relatives 10 aililiated 11 connections 12 relationship.
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- Family and relations - Crossword Clue
- BLOOD RELATIONSHIP
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In fact, research has shown that intellectually demanding activities like crossword puzzles or chess may be more effective for reducing anxiety than supposedly relaxing activities like watching TV or shopping. Ambilineal or Cognatic rule affiliates an individual with kinsmen through the father's or mother's line. Some people in societies that practise this system affiliate with a group of relatives through their fathers and others through their mothers.
The individual can choose which side he wants to affiliate to. The Samoans of the South Pacific are an excellent example of an ambilineal society. The core members of the Samoan descent group can live together in the same compound.
Double descent refers to societies in which both the patrilineal and matrilineal descent group are recognized. In these societies an individual affiliates for some purposes with a group of patrilineal kinsmen and for other purposes with a group of matrilineal kinsmen.
The most widely known case of double descent is the Afikpo of Imo state in Nigeria. Although patrilineage is considered an important method of organization, the Afikpo considers matrilineal ties to be more important. Descent groups[ edit ] A descent group is a social group whose members talk about common ancestry. A unilineal society is one in which the descent of an individual is reckoned either from the mother's or the father's line of descent. With matrilineal descent individuals belong to their mother's descent group.
Matrilineal descent includes the mother's brother, who in some societies may pass along inheritance to the sister's children or succession to a sister's son. With patrilineal descentindividuals belong to their father's descent group.
Societies with the Iroquois kinship system, are typically uniliineal, while the Iroquois proper are specifically matrilineal. In a society which reckons descent bilaterally bilinealdescent is reckoned through both father and mother, without unilineal descent groups. Societies with the Eskimo kinship system, like the InuitYupikand most Western societies, are typically bilateral. The egocentric kindred group is also typical of bilateral societies. Some societies reckon descent patrilineally for some purposes, and matrilineally for others.
This arrangement is sometimes called double descent. For instance, certain property and titles may be inherited through the male line, and others through the female line. Societies can also consider descent to be ambilineal such as Hawaiian kinship where offspring determine their lineage through the matrilineal line or the patrilineal line.
Lineages, clans, phratries, moieties, and matrimonial sides[ edit ] A lineage is a unilineal descent group that can demonstrate their common descent from a known apical ancestor. Unilineal lineages can be matrilineal or patrilineal, depending on whether they are traced through mothers or fathers, respectively.
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Whether matrilineal or patrilineal descent is considered most significant differs from culture to culture. A clan is generally a descent group claiming common descent from an apical ancestor.
Often, the details of parentage are not important elements of the clan tradition. Non-human apical ancestors are called totems.
A phratry is a descent group composed of two or more clans each of whose apical ancestors are descended from a further common ancestor. If a society is divided into exactly two descent groups, each is called a moietyafter the French word for half. If the two halves are each obliged to marry out, and into the other, these are called matrimonial moieties.
Houseman and White b, bibliography have discovered numerous societies where kinship network analysis shows that two halves marry one another, similar to matrimonial moieties, except that the two halves—which they call matrimonial sides  —are neither named nor descent groups, although the egocentric kinship terms may be consistent with the pattern of sidedness, whereas the sidedness is culturally evident but imperfect. House society In some societies kinship and political relations are organized around membership in corporately organized dwellings rather than around descent groups or lineagesas in the " House of Windsor ".
The socially significant groupings within these societies have variable membership because kinship is reckoned bilaterally through both father's and mother's kin and come together for only short periods. Property, genealogy and residence are not the basis for the group's existence.
Marriage Marriage is a socially or ritually recognized union or legal contract between spouses that establishes rights and obligations between them, between them and their children, and between them and their in-laws. When defined broadly, marriage is considered a cultural universal. A broad definition of marriage includes those that are monogamouspolygamoussame-sex and temporary.
The act of marriage usually creates normative or legal obligations between the individuals involved, and any offspring they may produce.
Related by blood or marriage - crossword puzzle clue
Marriage may result, for example, in "a union between a man and a woman such that children born to the woman are the recognized legitimate offspring of both partners. In many societies the choice of partner is limited to suitable persons from specific social groups. In some societies the rule is that a partner is selected from an individual's own social group — endogamythis is the case in many class and caste based societies. But in other societies a partner must be chosen from a different group than one's own — exogamythis is the case in many societies practicing totemic religion where society is divided into several exogamous totemic clans, such as most Aboriginal Australian societies.
Marriages between parents and children, or between full siblings, with few exceptions,         have been considered incest and forbidden.
Alliance theory Systemic forms of preferential marriage may have wider social implications in terms of economic and political organization. In a wide array of lineage-based societies with a classificatory kinship systempotential spouses are sought from a specific class of relative as determined by a prescriptive marriage rule.
Insofar as regular marriages following prescriptive rules occur, lineages are linked together in fixed relationships; these ties between lineages may form political alliances in kinship dominated societies. Levi-Strauss thus shifted the emphasis from descent groups to the stable structures or relations between groups that preferential and prescriptive marriage rules created. As is the case with other social sciences, Anthropology and kinship studies emerged at a time when the understanding of the Human species' comparative place in the world was somewhat different from today's.
Evidence that life in stable social groups is not just a feature of humans, but also of many other primateswas yet to emerge and society was considered to be a uniquely human affair.
As a result, early kinship theorists saw an apparent need to explain not only the details of how human social groups are constructed, their patterns, meanings and obligations, but also why they are constructed at all.
The why explanations thus typically presented the fact of life in social groups which appeared to be unique to humans as being largely a result of human ideas and values. Morgan's early influence[ edit ] Main article: Kinship terminology Morgan's explanation for why humans live in groups was largely based on the notion that all humans have an inherent natural valuation of genealogical ties an unexamined assumption that would remain at the heart of kinship studies for another century, see belowand therefore also an inherent desire to construct social groups around these ties.
Even so, Morgan found that members of a society who are not close genealogical relatives may nevertheless use what he called kinship terms which he considered to be originally based on genealogical ties. This fact was already evident in his use of the term affinity within his concept of the system of kinship. The most lasting of Morgan's contributions was his discovery of the difference between descriptive and classificatory kinship terms, which situated broad kinship classes on the basis of imputing abstract social patterns of relationships having little or no overall relation to genetic closeness but instead cognition about kinship, social distinctions as they affect linguistic usages in kinship terminologyand strongly relate, if only by approximation, to patterns of marriage.